Tudor Sport en tydverdryf

Tudor Sport en tydverdryf

In die Tudor -tye is sport streng deur die regering beheer. Slegs die hoër klasse mag byvoorbeeld aan toernooie deelneem. Dit behels twee gepantserde ridders wat geskei is deur 'n vier voet hoë houtversperring. Elke ridder het 'n lans gedra en die doel was om jou teenstander van sy perd af te slaan terwyl hy verby galop.

Henry VIII was 'n vaardige skrywer. In 1536 is hy egter ernstig beseer terwyl hy spring en moes hy uit die sport tree. Henry speel ook graag tennis. In Tudor -tye is tennis binne gespeel en balle is gemaak van leerskulpe gevul met hare.

Henry was ook 'n kranige jagter. Hy het gereeld ses uur per dag jagbokke gejag. Net adellikes is toegelaat om jagbokke te jag. Yeoman -boere kon jakkalse jag, en almal het hase en konyne gejag.

Dit was vir die Tudor -regering belangrik dat Engelse mense die meeste van hul tyd aan die werk bestee het. In 1512 word 'n wet aangeneem wat gewone mense verbied het uit 'n hele reeks speletjies, waaronder tennis, dobbelstene, kaarte, rolbal en kegels.

In die vroeë 1500's het sokker 'n gewilde sport in Engeland geword. Dit was 'n heel ander wedstryd as die wat vandag gespeel is. Die twee stelle doelpale is ongeveer 'n kilometer van mekaar geplaas. Daar was geen beperking op die getalle wat deelgeneem het nie, en spelers kon die bal skop, gooi of optel in 'n poging om dit tussen die teenstander se doelpale te plaas.

In 1531 het die Puriteinse prediker, Thomas Eliot, aangevoer dat voetbal 'woedende woede en uiterste geweld' veroorsaak. In 1572 eis die biskop van Rochester 'n nuwe veldtog om hierdie 'bose spel' te onderdruk. In sy boek, Anatomy of Abuses (1583) het Philip Stubbs aangevoer dat "voetbalspel en ander duiwels tydverdryf ons onttrek van godsaligheid, hetsy op die sabbat of op enige ander dag." Stubbs was ook bekommerd oor die beserings wat plaasgevind het: "soms is hul nek gebreek, soms hul rug, soms hul bene, soms hul arms, soms word 'n deel uit die gewrig gedruk, soms loop die neuse met bloed uit ... Sokker moedig afguns en haat aan ... soms veg, moord en 'n groot verlies aan bloed. "

In 1540 is mense in Engeland verbied om voetbal te speel. Twee jaar later is meer speletjies verbied, waaronder 'n nuwe gewilde aktiwiteit genaamd shuffleboard (shove-halfpenny). Daar was egter 'n paar mense wat gedink het dat sokker goed is vir die gesondheid van jong mans. Richard Mulcaster, die skoolhoof van die Merchant Taylors 'School, het in 1581 geskryf dat voetbal' groot hulp vir gesondheid en krag 'het. Hy het die spel bygevoeg: "versterk en versterk die hele liggaam, en deur oppervlakke na onder te lok, laat dit die kop en die boonste dele afloop, dit is goed vir die ingewande en om die klip en gruis uit die blaas en die niere te dryf."

Die rekords toon dat jong mans geweier het om die verbod op sokker te aanvaar. In 1589 het Hugh Case en William Shurlock 'n boete van twee gekry vir die speel van voetbal in die St. Werburgh -begraafplaas tydens die preek van die predikant. Tien jaar later is 'n groep mans in 'n dorp in Essex beboet omdat hulle op 'n Sondag voetbal gespeel het. Ander vervolgings het in Richmond, Bedford, Thirsk en Guisborough plaasgevind.

Plaaslike rade verbied ook die speel van sokker. Jong mans het egter steeds die plaaslike verordening geïgnoreer. In 1576 is dit in Ruislip opgeteken dat ongeveer honderd mense "onwettig bymekaargekom het en 'n sekere onwettige spel gespeel het, voetbal genoem". In Manchester in 1608 het ''n geselskap van onversetlike en ongeordende persone ... baie mans se vensters gebreek' tydens 'n 'onwettige' voetbalwedstryd. Dit was so 'n groot probleem dat die plaaslike raad in 1618 spesiale "voetbalbeamptes" aangestel het om hierdie wette te polisieer.

Een tydverdryf wat alle klasse in Tudor Engeland geniet het, was beertjies. Individuele bere is aan 'n paal vasgeketting in 'n beerring. 'N Groep honde is toe op die beer gesit. Die honde het die beer probeer doodmaak deur sy keel te byt. 'N Duitse besoeker, Paul Hentzner, kyk na 'n verblinde beer wat in Londen gedwing word om te veg:' Die beer kan nie van hulle ontsnap nie weens die ketting; hy verdedig homself met al sy krag en vaardigheid en gooi almal wat binne sy bereik kom, neer. . en die sweep uit hulle hande skeur en breek. "

Henry VIII en Elizabeth het albei dit geniet om na beertjies te kyk. Daar is selfs 'n ring op die terrein van Whitehall gebou sodat die Tudor-monarge by die vensters van die paleis kon lokaas. Koningin Elizabeth het op toer na Engeland gegaan, dorpe het vir haar groot aasvertonings aangebied. Toe die Laerhuis in 1585 gestem het om die lokaas op Sondag te verbied, het Elizabeth dit oorheers.

Elizabethane het dit ook geniet om na ander wrede gebeure te kyk, byvoorbeeld bere, wat deur vyf of ses mans verblind is. 'N Ander gebeurtenis het behels dat esels en bulle aangeval word deur spanne kwaai honde.

Mense het ook betaal om geestesinstellings soos die Bedlam -hospitaal in Londen te besoek, waar hulle dit geniet het om na die vreemde manewales van die pasiënte te kyk. Bedlam het selfs pasiënte aangestel om as entertainers by troues en bankette te verskyn.

Daar is 'n ronde bal voorberei ... sodat 'n man dit in sy hand kan hou ... Die bal is gemaak van hout en in talg gekook om dit glad en moeilik te hou ... Die bal word 'n knappan genoem, en een van die geselskap gooi dit in die lug ... Hy wat die bal kry, gooi dit na die doel toe ... die knappan word heen en weer geslinger ... Dit is 'n vreemde gesig om 'n duisend of vyftienhonderd man te sien jaag na die knappan ... Die spelers keer terug na hierdie toneelstuk met gebroke koppe, swart gesigte, gekneusde lywe en lam bene ... Tog lag en grap hulle en vertel stories oor hoe hulle hul koppe gebreek het ... sonder wrok of haat. "

Sokker is meer 'n geveg as 'n wedstryd ... Soms is hul nekke gebreek, soms hul rug, soms hul bene ... soms baklei, moord en 'n groot bloedverlies.

Die beer kan nie van hulle ontsnap nie weens die ketting; hy verdedig homself met al sy krag en vaardigheid, gooi almal wat binne sy bereik kom, neer ... en skeur die swepe uit hulle hande en breek hulle.

Ek het saam met 'n paar vriende na die beertuin gegaan ... daar is haangeveg, hondegeveg, beer en lokaas ... Een van die bulle gooi 'n hond in 'n vrou se skoot terwyl sy in een van die bokse op 'n aansienlike hoogte van die arena. Twee arme honde is doodgemaak.

Hulle moes dit so gereeld hardloop dat hulle twee-en-twintig myl opmaak ... Die Engelse man het die voortou gekry tydens die tweede ronde. Hy het die voortou gehou tot die vyfde ronde en toe kom die Skotse man op ... Die Engelse val binne 'n paar meter van die paal af ... baie honderde pond is gewen en verloor.

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Hans Holbein en Henry VIII (Antwoordkommentaar)

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Henry VIII en Anne van Cleves (Antwoordkommentaar)

Was koningin Catherine Howard skuldig aan verraad? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Anne Boleyn - Godsdienshervormer (antwoordkommentaar)

Het Anne Boleyn ses vingers aan haar regterhand? 'N Studie in Katolieke propaganda (antwoordkommentaar)

Waarom was vroue vyandig teenoor Henry VIII se huwelik met Anne Boleyn? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Catherine Parr en vroueregte (antwoordkommentaar)

Vroue, politiek en Henry VIII (antwoordkommentaar)

Historici en romanskrywers oor Thomas Cromwell (antwoordkommentaar)

Martin Luther en Thomas Müntzer (antwoordkommentaar)

Martin Luther en Hitler se antisemitisme (antwoordkommentaar)

Martin Luther en die Reformasie (antwoordkommentaar)

Mary Tudor and Heretics (Commentary Commentary)

Joan Bocher - Anabaptist (antwoordkommentaar)

Anne Askew - Burnt at the Stake (antwoordkommentaar)

Elizabeth Barton en Henry VIII (Antwoordkommentaar)

Teregstelling van Margaret Cheyney (antwoordkommentaar)

Robert Aske (antwoordkommentaar)

Ontbinding van die kloosters (antwoordkommentaar)

Pelgrimstog van genade (antwoordkommentaar)

Armoede in Tudor Engeland (antwoordkommentaar)

Waarom het koningin Elizabeth nie getrou nie? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Francis Walsingham - Kodes en kodebreek (antwoordkommentaar)

Sir Thomas More: Heilig of Sondaar? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Hans Holbein se kuns en godsdienstige propaganda (antwoordkommentaar)

Opstandings op 1 Mei 1517: Hoe weet historici wat gebeur het? (Antwoord kommentaar)


Tudor Sport en tydverdryf - Geskiedenis

Alle soorte sportsoorte was baie gewild in die sestiende eeu.

Jousting was gewild. Slegs die adel (hoër klasse) is toegelaat om aan toernooie deel te neem.

Jousting behels twee gepantserde ridders wat geskei is deur 'n vier voet hoë houtversperring. Elke ridder het 'n lans gedra en die doel was om jou teenstander van sy perd af te slaan terwyl hy verby galop.

Tennis is een van die oudste raketsportsoorte.
Gedurende die Tudor -tye is dit binnenshuis gespeel in 'n groot kamer met 'n net. Soos tennis vandag, moes spelers die bal oor die net slaan. In die Tudor -tye kon die bal egter ook van die mure afgespring word en punte is ook aangeteken deur die bal in een van drie doele hoog in die mure te slaan.

Tudor -tennisrackets is van hout gemaak en met skaap se ingewande gespan. Die leer tennisballe was vol hare.

Voetbal is anders gespeel as vandag. Daar was geen vaste aantal spanspelers nie, so baie mense wat by die wedstryd wou aansluit. Die doelpale is ongeveer 'n kilometer van mekaar af geplaas en die spelers kon die bal skop, gooi of optel in 'n poging om dit tussen die teenstander se doelpale te plaas.

'N Soortgelyke sokkerwedstryd word elke jaar op Shrove Tuesday gespeel in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, die wêreld se oudste, grootste, langste en mooiste voetbalwedstryd. Die spel word oor twee dae gespeel en behels duisende spelers. Die doelwitte is drie myl uitmekaar en daar is slegs 'n paar reëls. Die bal is 'n met die hand geverfde kurkbal. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie speletjie al 1000 jaar gespeel word.

Net die rykes mag hertjies jag. Boere in die land kon jakkalse jag, maar armes kon net hase en konyne jag.

Beer-aas

Individuele bere is aan 'n paal vasgeketting in 'n beerring. 'N Groep honde is toe op die beer gesit. Die honde het die beer probeer doodmaak deur sy keel te byt.

Beide Henry VIII en Elizabeth het dit geniet om na aas te kyk. Daar is selfs 'n ring op die terrein van Whitehall gebou sodat die Tudor-monarge by die vensters van die paleis kon lokaas.

Haangeveg

Sommige sportsoorte in die Tudor -tye is verbied!

In 1512 word 'n wet aangeneem wat gewone mense verbied het uit 'n hele reeks speletjies, waaronder tennis, dobbelstene, kaarte, rolbal en kegels. Dit was omdat die regering wou hê dat mense meer moet werk en minder speel.

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'N Verskeidenheid tydverdrywe wat nou as bloedsport beskou sou word, was gewild. Haangevegte was 'n algemene tydverdryf, en die weddenskappe op hierdie spel kan duisende pond beloop, 'n buitensporige hoeveelheid geld in daardie dae, en baie agbare here het al hul geld op hierdie manier verloor. [ aanhaling nodig ] Henry VIII laat 'n koninklike kajuit by een van sy paleise laat bou.

Jong seuns op Shrove Tuesday sou gewoonlik hul eie haan inbring en die middag by die skool deurbring om weddenskappe te plaas waarop die haan sou wen [ aanhaling nodig ]. Die bekendste haanput in Londen was in Drury Lane, en die meeste dorpe en dorpe het hul eie put.

Daar was ander algemene diersportsoorte: beer-aas, stiergeveg, hondegeveg, [1] en haan gooi. Bowls was ook uiters gewild in die Elizabethaanse era. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Verskeie soorte jag was gewild onder die adel. Die hert, vark, kuit, bok, dakke, otters, hase en jakkalse is ook gejag. Windhonde en Ierse wolfhonde was algemeen om te jag.

Vir die hoër klas was smous 'n gewilde sport. Baie tyd is bestee aan die opleiding van 'n valk of valk, en om dit in 'n goeie toestand te hou, wat baie duur, gespesialiseerde toerusting benodig, wat dit te duur maak vir die laer klasse. [2]

Koningin Elizabeth I was baie lief vir jag en smous [2]

Voetbal in Elizabethaanse styl was vergelykbaar met die huidige sport van rugbyunie en rugbyliga. Twee spanne het teen mekaar gejaag en probeer om die 'bal' deur die doelpale te kry. "Cudgels" was ook 'n gewilde sport onder jong mans. [3] 'n Soort stokgeveg, dit was 'n sport wat effektief oefen vir swaardgevegte, maar met houtmors of eenvoudige knuffels.

Hardloop, spring, omhein, steek, boogskiet en kegels is ook beoefen, met visvang as die mees ontspannende en onskadelike tydverdryf.

Kinders het dit geniet om springkikker, blinde man se bluf en wegkruipertjie te speel, wat vandag nog deur baie kinders in Brittanje geniet word.

Elizabethane geniet dit om kaarte te speel, met 'n speletjie genaamd triomfeer (vandag se fluit) gewild. Daar is ook dobbelstene, backgammon en konsepte gespeel. Mans speel meestal hierdie speletjies, aangesien dit as onvanpas geag is vir 'n vrou om te dobbel, maar koningin Elizabeth het die eerste geniet om kaarte te speel en was 'n ywerige dobbelaar. [ aanhaling nodig ] Elizabethane wed op hierdie speletjies met verskillende geldeenhede, veral geld ingesluit.

Musiek en dans Redigeer

Musiek is gedurende hierdie era baie geniet, soos gesien deur 'n hele paar gesinsaande, insluitend musikale optredes. Kinders is op 'n baie vroeë ouderdom geleer om te sing en dans en is gewoond daaraan om tydens sulke aande in die openbaar op te tree. Klavierinstrumente soos klavesimbel, klavikoorde, dulcimers en virginals is gespeel. Houtblaasinstrumente soos woodys, crumhorns, fluite en snaarinstrumente soos lute en rebecs is ook wyd gebruik.

Hofdanse bevat die pavane en galliard, [4] die almain en die volta, terwyl onder die gewilde danse die branle was, Die Gars-breek ('n opset deur William Byrd is in My Ladye Nevells Booke), Niemand se Jig nie (waarvan 'n weergawe deur Richard Farnaby opgestel is) en die Skud-'n-draf.

Teater Redigeer

Die toneelstukke was 'n uiters gewilde tydverdryf, met die toneelstukke van William Shakespeare wat die leiding in die gehoor geneem het. [ aanhaling nodig ] In hierdie tyd is 'n hele paar teaters in en om Londen gebou, waaronder 'The Globe', 'The Swan' en 'The Fortune'. Min natuurskoon is gebruik, maar rekwisiete is wyd gebruik. Die rekwisiete was redelik realisties, met ingewande van varke wat oor die verhoog gestrooi was toe 'n man se liggaam oopgesny is. [ aanhaling nodig ]


Tudor Sport en tydverdryf - Geskiedenis

Jag in Tudor Engeland

Jag in Europa en Asië met spesiaal geteelde en opgeleide honde was die sport van edeles en geestelikes, grootliks omdat hulle 'n groot deel van die grond wat geskik is vir jag, besit of beheer het. Jag met sithonde in hierdie era het sedert die tyd van Romeine nie veel verander nie. Dit was 'n sport, nie die ernstige strewe na kos nie, wat die honde teen die haas en teen mekaar gestamp het.

Elizabeth by 'n piekniek
Houtsny van & quotThe Booke of Hunting & quot
Die Britse biblioteek

& quotElizabeth I uit Jag & quot
houtsny van & quotThe Booke of Hunting & quot
Die Britse biblioteek

Koningin Elizabeth self was lief vir jag. Die jag het die ryk edeles toegelaat om met hul pragtige perde, valke, klere en wapens te pronk. Perde is pronk deur hul teling, meestal deur adellikes, en word gerangskik volgens uithouvermoë, spoed, skoonheid en sterkte. Uit die jagrondes sou die rykes dikwels 'n teelboom vestig in 'n poging om die perfekte ras te skep. Veldsport was 'n morele manier om te ontsnap.

Ten spyte van die protes van 'n paar humaniste soos Desiderius Erasmus en Sir Thomas MoreIn die vroeë Tudor in Engeland was jag deur die meeste mense nie net 'n simbool van ridderskap nie, maar ook 'n aktiwiteit wat die ware heer gekenmerk het. Daar word van diegene van rang verwag om deel te neem omdat sportbyeenkomste mans opgelei het vir oorlog, terwyl die arbeiders ses dae per week moes werk en nie kon deelneem nie. Sondae het die werkersklas dikwels boogskiet beoefen.

'Deur God se liggaam sou ek eerder wou hê dat my seun sou hang as om letterkunde te bestudeer. Die manne se seuns moet korrek oproepe blaas, vaardig jag, 'n valk goed oplei en elegant dra. Maar die bestudering van letterkunde moet aan klopspringers oorgelaat word. '

Anonieme heer aan Richard Pace (1517)

'N Wet van Henry VIIDie eerste parlement in 1485 het ongemagtigde jag in privaatwoude tot 'n misdryf strafbaar gemaak as die oortreding in die nag gepleeg is of as die stropers hul gesig vermom of verduister het om te voorkom dat hulle geïdentifiseer word, maar as dit bedags gedoen is en sonder vermomming was dit slegs 'n oortreding wat met boete of gevangenisstraf gestraf kan word.

Daar was een uitsondering op die wetgewing wat die vernietiging van wild of die steel van voëls se eiers verbied het. Die owerhede is ontsteld oor die skade wat veroorsaak word deur torings en kraaie, wat nie net die oes se oeste groot skade berokken het nie, maar ook die grasdak op die dakke van kothuise en skure beskadig het. 'N Wet van 1533 het bepaal dat elke gemeente nette moet hou om toue te vang. Enigiemand was geregtig om grond binne te gaan sonder die toestemming van die grondeienaar om torings te vernietig, indien toestemming gevra en geweier is, sonder om aanspreeklik te wees vir skadevergoeding.

Vir Henry VIII, jag bied 'n kans om saam met 'n paar vriende uit die sorg van die politiek te ontsnap:

Tydverdryf met goeie geselskap
Ek is lief vir en sal tot ek sterf
Begeer na wellus, maar niemand ontken nie
Laat God dit behaag, so sal ek lewe
Vir my herkoms,
Jag, sing en dans,
My hart is vas,
Alles goeie sport
Vir my troos:
Wie sal ek toelaat?

Vir ander, soos die digter Henry Howard, graaf van Surrey, jag is geassosieer met 'n nostalgiese, verlore geluk. Toe hy in die Windsor -kasteel gevange geneem is omdat hy geslaan het Edward Seymour, graaf van Hertford, het hy weemoedig geskryf hoe, as metgesel van die Koningse buite -egtelike seun, Henry Fitzroy, hertog van Richmond:

'Met kreet van honde en vrolike uitbarstings tussenin

Waar ons wel die angswekkende hart 'n krag agtervolg het.'

Die digter Thomas Wyatt gepaardgaande jag met die rustige lewe, ver van die politiek se sorg. Hy het sy vriend gewaarsku, John Poyntz, teen 'n politieke loopbaan:

'Dit laat my tuis hounte kry
en hawke
En in voël weder by my booke to
sit.
In ryp en sneeu dan met my boog
te bekruip

Niemand markeer waar ek ry nie
of goe
In lustige lees by libertie loop ek,
En van hierdie nuutjies het ek ook nie gevoel nie
ook nie.'

As 'n aangename ontspanning was jag dus 'n wesenlike kontras met die daaglikse sake van 'n heer, en hy het noemenswaardige en antieke ondersteuning hierin gehad. Pliniushet byvoorbeeld aangevoer dat jag die heer 'n noodsaaklike verandering van sy gewone werk verskaf.

Sedert moreel was jag geregverdig as 'n manier om ledigheid te vermy. 'N Nogal heilige jongeling Henry VIII aangekondig dat jag 'n manier is om te vermy 'Lei die grond van alle vyande af en oefen dit wat eerbaar en vir die liggaam gesond en winsgewend sal wees'. Die hofmaker en humanistiese opvoedkundige skrywer Sir Thomas Elyot skryf van Xenophon se Leer van Kores, dat Kores 'en ander ou konings van Persië het hierdie manier gebruik in al hul jag', en hy gee 'n beskrywing van die rol van die jag in die opvoeding van die Persiese edelman.

Jag het sedert antieke tye 'n noodsaaklike aanvulling op die akademiese opvoeding van die kinders van die heerskappy gelewer, en gedurende die sestiende eeu blyk dit waar te bly. Hofmeesters hou daarvan Elyot, met sy 'Boek van die Goewerneur', en Francis Bryan, in sy 'Dispraise of the life of a courtier', het beide die uitnemende voorbeeld gevolg van Castiglione, vir wie jag was 'die ware tydverdryf van groot here, 'n geskikte strewe vir 'n hofdienaar'. In Skotland gedurende die vroeë 1520's Koningin Margaret is gekritiseer omdat hy versuim het om die jongmense op te voed James V. behoorlik, aangesien sy hom nie aan jagekspedisies laat deelneem het nie. Vaders kyk met trots na kinders wat in hierdie buitemuurse aktiwiteite bekwaamheid toon. As kind, Thomas Cranmer geleer om te jag en te smous, en alhoewel sy pa 'was daarop gemik om sy seun te laat opvoed in leer', het hy hom steeds toegelaat om te jag en te smous, en om op 'n ruwe perd te ry sodat hy, toe hy biskop was, vrees dat hy nie die rofste perde sou ry wat in sy stalle gekom het nie, wat hy baie mooi sou doen. Henry VIII homself op hoogte gehou van die jagtogte wat sy kinders onderneem het. Hy is in 1525 meegedeel dat sy jong seun, die Hertog van Richmondalhoewel hy siek was en 'n paar kilometer in 'n werpsel gereis het, het hy self 'n takbok in Clyff Park in Northamptonshire geskiet terwyl hy na die koninklike huis in Colyweston reis. Aangesien dit 'n sesjarige kind was, Henry Daar word duidelik verwag dat hy beïndruk sou wees. Die Koningse hoofminister, Thomas Cromwell, is ook op hoogte gehou van sy seun Gregoryse entoesiasme vir jag, sowel as sy skoolvordering. Gregoryse onderwyser, Henry Dowes, ingelig Cromwell by verskeie geleenthede wat Gregory en sy vriende was gesond en het geleer, en het opgemerk dat as hulle so voortgaan

'as die laaste keer in die diens van die Wylde Goddes Diana was.'

Alhoewel nuwe humanistiese opvoedingstyle gedurende die vroeë sestiende eeu voorgehou is, wat die intellektuele ontwikkeling van die edele jeug beklemtoon het, toon 'n lees van hedendaagse dokumente dat kennis van jag steeds noodsaaklik is vir die erfgenaam van enige belangrike edele huishouding. Volgens die 'Boke of Curtesy' in die middel van die vyftiende eeu, wat niks sê oor hoe om te jag nie, was die edele kind nodig om te weet wat geld aan die jagters, die brood wat hulle verskuldig is, en die aantal bene wat aan elke hond gegee moet word. Dit moes dus noodsaaklik gewees het vir hierdie kinders om te weet hoe die jagbedryf in die breër organisasie van die huishouding pas. Die jong heer van die laat vyftiende eeu moes ook die huishoudelike etiket leer wat verband hou met die jag, en veral die opbrengs daarvan, wildsvleis.

Vroeë jagters van Tudor gebruik 'n reeks grootliks gespesialiseerde wapens om hul prooi na te jaag en dood te maak. Vir varke is 'n spesiale spies en swaard, of 'tokke', albei met dwarsstawe onder die punt wat bedoel is om oorpenetrasie te voorkom, gebruik deur jagters soos die Hertog van Suffolk en die Markies van Dorset, toe hulle op die ambassade by die Franse hof was. Varkejag sou gereserveer gewees het vir ambassadeurs in die buiteland, maar die meeste jagters sou 'n jag swaard of houtmes gebruik het, soos die met 'die hefte is gilte' daardie Here Montague gegee het Henry VIII in die nuwe jaar, 1532. Ten spyte van hierdie spesialisasie, was wapens soortgelyk genoeg om verwisselbaar te wees en jagwapens is soms in werklike gevegte gebruik. 'N Ierse soldaat is in 1544 deur 'n Duitse huursoldaat deur 'n Duitse huursoldaat gesteek tydens 'n aanval wat gevolg het Henry VIIIse vaslegging van Boulogne. Jag het ook 'n waardevolle oefening in skiet verskaf. Die gewapende wapen was die kruisboog, en baie van die verwysings na hierdie wapen in die wapens van die regerende elite was moontlik eerder vir jag as vir oorlog. In Henry VIIIse paleis van Hunsdon in 1539, was daar twee kruisboë, kompleet met veertien gevurkte pyle en twee 'vyrrall -boute', pyle wat duidelik ontwerp was vir die jagter. Daar is geen verwysings na skietery met die geweer nie, wat boogskiet 'n oortollige vaardigheid op die slagveld begin maak het. Die geweer was egter in hierdie stadium miskien te onakkuraat om 'n groot impak op die jagveld te maak Henry VIII het wel 'n spesiaal gemaakte breeklaaier.

Die gejagde dier was gewoonlik die hert, wat in die Tudor -era gewoonlik die hart genoem is. Die Engelse wilde varke was nie so fel of te voet soos die varke in Europa nie, en dit was skaars die moeite werd om te jag. Soms is 'n bok gejag in plaas van 'n hart. Boere het jakkalse gejag, maar geen heer het dit gedoen tot aan die einde van die sewentiende eeu nie. Toe 'n hart of bok doodgemaak word, is dit geëet. Harte kon op die meeste tye van die jaar gejag word, maar nie in die middel van die winter nie, en die koning en sy edeles het toe eerder smous. Valke is opgelei vir hierdie sport, en statute is aangeneem om enige stroper wat hul eiers gesteel het, te straf.

Die jaag na diere te perd of te voet, meer as ander soorte jag, was belangrik omdat dit goeie oefening verskaf het, of 'volmaakte beweging van die geeste' waardeur 'alle dinge word oorbodig verdryf, en die buise van die liggaam word gesluit'. Om vinnig te ry, het die jagter sulke oefening gegee, terwyl hy noodwendig in die vars lug was, wat volgens die vroeë Tudor -dokter Andrew Boorde was 'n noodsaaklike element in 'n gesonde leefstyl. Maar nie alle jag is in hierdie opsig vir die heer nuttig nie. Elyot het dit eerder minagtend geskryf

'Die jag van die haas met windhonde is 'n goeie troos vir manne wat nuuskierig is. en ook vir sagmoedige vroue, wat nie son of wind vrees omdat hulle hul skoonheid benadeel nie.'

ElyotDie kritiek het die Engelse adel egter nie daarvan weerhou om heelhartig daaraan deel te neem nie. Jag was nie net waardevol vir sy gesondheid nie, maar ook omdat dit 'n man was om manlikheid of vaardigheid te beoefen. Die invloedryke Italiaanse humanis Baldassar Castiglione het opgemerk dat dit een van die sportsoorte is wat 'vereis baie manlike inspanning'. Om hierdie vaardigheid te demonstreer, Elyot het geskryf dat slegs sekere spesies gejag moet word, en klassieke voorbeelde gebruik om sy punt te maak. 'Die hoofjag van die dapper Grieke', merk hy op,'was van die leeu, die luiperd, die tier, die wilde varke en die beer, en soms die wolf, en die hart'. Hy was egter realisties en erken dat die situasie in Engeland nogal anders was en 'wat in die jag van rooibokke en damme 'n groot deel kan wees van soortgelyke oefening, wat deur edeles gebruik word, veral in woude wat ruim is'. Vir Castiglione, sport en oefening, veral jag, het die hofdienaar verder 'n geleentheid gebied om 'toon vaardigheid en bou 'n goeie reputasie op, veral by die skare wat die hofdienaar altyd moet humoriseer'. Jag, omdat dit op so 'n voor die hand liggende manier nie mededingend was nie, was 'n meer verstandige opsie vir 'n koning vir wie fisiese teenwoordigheid blykbaar baie beteken het.

Windhonde het byna uitgesterf tydens hongersnood in die Middeleeue. Hulle is gered deur geestelikes wat hulle beskerm en geteel het vir die adel. Van nou af word hulle beskou as die honde van die aristokrasie. In die tiende eeu, Koning Howel van Wallis maak die moord op 'n windhond met die dood strafbaar. Koning Canute van Engeland het die boswette in 1014 ingestel en groot dele van die land voorbehou vir jag deur die adel. Slegs sulke persone kan windhonde besit, 'n mens kan 'n swaar straf kry en die hond se tone 'vermink' om te verhoed dat hy jag. Die waarde van 'n windhond het die waarde van 'n dienskneg oorskry, en die straf vir die dood van 'n windhond was gelykstaande aan die straf vir moord. In 1066 Willem die Veroweraar nog strenger boswette ingestel. Henry VII, die eerste Tudor -monarg, het ongemagtigde jag in privaat woude tot 'n misdryf strafbaar gemaak as die oortreding in die nag gepleeg is. Gewone wat met windhonde gejag het in stryd met hierdie wette, het honde bevoordeel wie se kleur hulle moeiliker raakgesien het: swart, rooi, bruin en gestorwe. Edeles het daarteenoor gunstelinge vir wit en gevlekte honde gehad, wat makliker opgemerk en herstel sou kon word as hulle in die bos wegraak. Dit het algemeen geword onder die Engelse aristokrasie om te sê: & quotU kan 'n heer aan sy perde en sy windhonde vertel& quot.

Die windhond is die eerste hondras wat in die Engelse letterkunde genoem word. Die monnik in Geoffrey Chaucerse 14de eeu Die Canterbury -verhale na bewering groot bedrae aan sy windhonde bestee het:

'. Windhonde het hy so vinnig soos 'n voël in die vlug gehad
Van prikyng en van huntyng vir die haas
Was al sy begeerte, sonder moeite wou hy spaar. '

Edmund de Langley's Mayster of Game, 1370 nC, beskryf die ideale windhond:

'. Die Greihound moet 'n lang hede hê en 'n somedele grete, gemaak in die vorm van 'n goeie groot mond en goeie sessors, die een weer die ander, sodat die onderkake hulle nie bo pas nie; .
Die nek moet dik en lank wees, en gebuig soos 'n swanne se nek.
Haar skouers as 'n rooibok, die pote van die been en gretige inow, en niks om die voete agterlangs rond en rond soos 'n katjie te wees nie, en 'n groot klomp die boone en die joynetes van die cheyne grete en hard soos die chyne van 'n hert die dye groot en die hoeke styf soos 'n haas, en nie soos 'n os nie.
'N Katte se tayle, maak 'n ring by eend, maar nie na hie nie.
Van alle maniere van Greihondes is daar by beide goed en evel Natheless die beste ooi is rede falow, met 'n swart mosel.
'

Langley het hierdie boek aan die toekoms voorgehou Koning Henry V van Engeland. Henry na bewering 'n groot fan van windhonde was William Shakespeare het dit geweet toe, twee eeue later, in sy toneelstuk Henry V., het hy die koning laat mense vergelyk met windhonde in sy toespraak met sy troepe net voor die Slag van Harfleur:

Ek sien jy staan ​​soos windhonde in die strokies,
Aan die begin gespanne.
Die spel is aan die gang.

Coursing races, met honde wat lewendige hase jaag, het in die sestiende eeu gewild geword. Koningin Elizabeth gehad het Thomas Howard, hertog van Norfolk, stel reëls op vir die beoordeling van mededingende loopbane. Hierdie reëls bepaal dinge soos die begin van die haas en die maniere waarop die spoed, behendigheid en konsentrasie van die twee honde teen mekaar beoordeel kan word. Om te wen was nie noodwendig afhanklik van die vang van die haas nie (alhoewel dit 'n hoë telling behaal het). Dikwels het die haas ontsnap. Wedstryde is gewoonlik op die renhonde geplaas. Hierdie reëls was nog van krag toe die eerste amptelike coursing -klub in 1776 in Swaffham, Norfolk, Engeland, gestig is. Die reëls vir koers het sedert hierdie tyd nie veel verander nie.

Die Engelse sport - jag deur sig in plaas van geur - het sy oorsprong in antieke Griekeland en is 'n sport wat meer waardeer word as die vang van die prooi. Die Griekse historikus Arrian het geskryf: & quotVir koeriers, ten minste soos ware sportlui, moet hul honde nie uithaal ter wille van die vang van 'n haas nie, maar vir die wedstryd en sport om te jaag, en is bly as die haas ontsnap& quot.

Anders as Elizabeth, King James I jag verkies bo harde werk. Hy was 'n ywerige aanhanger van windhonde. Nadat hy gehoor het van die sterkte van die plaaslike hase, het hy sy windhonde na die dorpie Fordham, naby die grens van Suffolk en Cambridge, gebring. Dit was nie 'n openbare uitstalling nie, maar 'n privaat kompetisie tussen die Koningse windhonde waargeneem deur James en sy hof. Hy het by die Griffin Inn in die nabygeleë stad Newmarket. Hy het die koers daar so geniet dat hy 'n jaglodge in Newmarket gebou het. Om die kwaliteit van jag te handhaaf, het hy in 1619 beveel dat 100 hase en 100 patryse jaarliks ​​op Newmarket vrygelaat moet word. Wedrenne tussen die perde van sy volgelinge het net so belangrik geword as die wedstryde tussen die Koningse windhonde. Dit het die tradisie van mededingende wedrenne in Newmarket begin.

Dr Caius'sê die Switserse natuurkundige Conrad Gesner, geskryf in 1570, beskryf die voorkoms en vermoëns van die Engelse windhond:

'. Van die hond, in Latyn die windhond genoem, Leporarius [letterlik, & quothare-hunter & quot]. Hier is 'n ander soort hond wat vir sy ongelooflike vinnigheid Leporarius genoem word, 'n windhond omdat die hoofdiens daarvan afhang en daarby bestaan ​​om die haas te begin en te jag: watter honde ook met minder krag omring word as lig in die instandhouding van wild , om die agtervolging te dien, om die bok, die haas, die doe, die jakkals en ander diere van skynbare soort te neem wat vir die jagspel bestem is. Maar min of meer, elkeen volgens die maat en verhouding van hul begeerte en die krag en die vermoë van hul liggame dit sal toelaat en ly. Want dit is 'n spaar en kaal soort hond (van vlees, maar nie van been nie) sommige is van 'n groter soort en sommige minder, sommige het 'n gladde vel en sommige is gekrul. Die groter word dus aangestel om die groter diere te jag, en die kleiner dien om die kleiner dienooreenkomstig te jag. '

Aan die einde van die sestiende eeu, Gervase Markham het daardie windhonde geskryf

'. is van alle honde die edelste en vorstelikste, sterk, flink, vinnig en dapper en hoewel van skraal en baie fyn afmetings, maar tog so goed gebind en aanmekaar gekoppel, en so gesonde met gees en sterkte, dat hulle baas is oor alle ander honde hoegenaamd. '

Jaggeskenke is gereeld gegee om sosiale verhoudings tussen individue te versterk. Die Lisle-familie, wie se briewe ons die mees volledige beeld gee van die geskenkbewyse van 'n edele gesin, het wild en vriende, maar ook aan 'n wye verskeidenheid mense, van die koning af tot onder, gegee. Arthur Plantagenet, lord Lisle, het self 'n groot aantal 'puetts', of klein wilde voëls, gestuur na Henry VIII in Julie 1535, wat blykbaar gehou het Henry 'vrolik' in Waltham Forest die somer. Eer, dame Lisle, in Mei 1534, stuur die koningin dottrells. In such cases, the Lisles were demonstrating their loyalty and deference, while to those lower down the social scale, they like other prominent landowners, demonstrated their 'good lordship'. Thomas Cranmer sent a buck and 'a noble of your purse towards the bakyng and seasonyng of hym' to the master of Jesus College, Cambridge, as part of his good will as the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Substantial nobles might show their good lordship to the poorer members of the community by spicing up their special communal meals with venison, or return favours from their local communities with such gifts. During the 'gresse seson' of the first year of Henry VIII's reign (early summer 1509), the Howards sent a buck to 'the towne of Donwyche' -- a symbol of the Howard's authority over the townsfolk.

By the close of the sixteenth century, the world had changed significantly. Feudalism had ended allowing commoners freedom of movement unknown for a thousand years. City dwellers increased in number. By this time many more people were able to own game dogs such as greyhounds. As the number of middle class persons expanded, so did the need for cleared land. Dense forests and swamps were giving way to planting land, pastures, and towns. These new fields brought infiltration by hares, foxes, and badgers. The need to exterminate unwanted animals led to breeding of cast-off greyhounds (and other breeds) of the upper classes.

The greyhound was used as an emblem, often in tombs, at the feet of the effigies of gentlemen, symbolizing the knightly virtues (faith), occupations (hunting) and generally the aristocratic way of life. Where tombs are concerned, the greyhound always was associated with knighthood (along with the lion, symbolizing strength) and never with ladies, who generally were associated with the little lap-dog (symbol of marital faithfulness and domestic virtue).

Williams, James: Hunting, Hawking and the Early Tudor Gentleman History Today, 00182753, Aug 2003, Vol. 53, Issue 8


Pastimes

Although life was, in the main, much harder in the sixteenth century than it is now, that does not necessarily mean it was less enjoyable. Many of the ways people of all walks of life amused themselves are not dissimilar our own pastimes – music, games and physical recreation. For the poorer members of society, although want was never far away, their lives were not ruled by the relentless need to feed the machines that characterised the life of the working poor after the industrial revolution: instead, the rhythm of work and play reflected the needs of agriculture – busy from sowing to harvest, but less frenetic at other times.

Prior to the Reformation, the frequency of holy days and saints’ days gave labourers a degree of free time, often spent in religious celebrations that involved community meals, processions and general merry-making. After the Reformation, these days were severely curtailed and labourers worked man more days in each year – a not insignificant reason for the landowners’ support of the new religion.

By the early seventeenth century, the phenomenon of public, secular, theatre, which replaced the local religious mystery plays, was taking London by storm.


Sports and Pastimes

Doncaster has always been a sporting town. It is still a centre of horse-racing, with the September meeting every year. The St. Leger is in all probability the largest race meeting held in the United Kingdom, and is bound up very intimately with the history of our town for nigh on 300 years.

A picture of early Doncaster would be incomplete if it failed to describe the sports and pastimes of the people. To begin with the town was in the centre of a vast region of forest and marsh. Sherwood Forest came up to the town on one side there was Barnsdale Common on the north there was the vale of the Don to the west and to the east there was a wide stretching expanse of reedy, fenny marsh, the home of deer and wildfowl and fish of every description. Important towns were nearly always built on the banks of a river – not only for the sake of the defence afforded by a deep waterway, but also for the sake of the fish that the river contained. In the same way, monasteries and monkish houses of every kind were sure to be established on the banks of a well stocked stream.

In those early days, Doncaster must have been a paradise for the hunter, the wild-fowler, and the angler. Herds of deer roamed in the forests. It is true that rigorous game laws kept these out of the hands of the common people. The King’s deer were sacred, and only his baronial representatives had the right to hunt and kill them. But there has always been a sporting strain in the British character, and we know from our reading of history, from the poems of the period, from the legends of Robin Hood, from the severity of the laws, that a great deal of what we now call poaching was carried on and that in many a humble hut, in many a burgess’ home, venison was eaten that had never been obtained by lawful means. Even the great Shakespeare, as a young man, was brought before the magistrates of Stratford-on-Avon for stealing the deer from the park of a neighbouring squire.

The land was not enclosed then as it is today. Deer are only met with now in England in the private parks of large estates, save a few wild deer scattered around the countryside, (they are making a comeback). But in the early times of the Norman kings they abounded in every forest there were no massive walls to keep them off the highway and we may be sure that the more adventurous spirits among the people often set the laws at defiance, and that many a Royal Stag met its doom at the hands of the burgesses of Doncaster. The mere fact that the punishment for deer stealing was death shows that the practice was common, and that the most rigorous measures had to be taken to stamp it out.

Wild-fowling was not regarded as such a serious crime. Indeed, in the marshy districts to the east of the town, wild-fowl of every description were so plentiful, that if they had have been left alone they would have become a nuisance, so we may be sure that wild-fowl were an important part of the people’s food supply, and that snaring and stalking were among the recognised occupations of the age – not just for sport, but as a means of livelihood. The fact that the names Fowler, Hawker, Falconer, and Hunter appear in our old burgess rolls shows that these sports were so extensively followed as to become hereditary in certain families. In later centuries there was a decoy for wild duck to the south of the town, on Potteric Carr and although the duck are not so plentiful, the place is still sometimes referred to as the Decoy.

Otters and Badgers would have at one time been all too common a sight. Through most of the centuries there are records of both these animals being hunted. They are now not so common, although the badger is now strictly protected and the even the otter is once again making its way up stream to certain parts of the town. Badgers were hunted regularly in the woods, particularly on the Edlington and Wadworth side of town. The badger is known as ‘Brock’ in Old English literature, and we have a road in Doncaster called Broxholme Lane, not too far from the Don river. The word Broxholme is said to be a corruption of two words, ‘Brock’s’ and ‘Holme’, or ‘Badger Island’.

In addition to all these other sports, there was fishing. In times gone by our rivers were teeming with fresh-water fish, and the Don was alive with salmon and sea-trout. The Don takes its rise on the Penistone hills beyond Sheffield, passes right through the cutlery city, then through Rotherham and Mexborough, washes the foot of the hill on which Conisborough Castle stands, before flowing through Doncaster on it’s journey to the north sea. Beyond Doncaster it used to split up into many channels, which wound through marsh and bog in the Isle of Axholme before the water reached the Humber by way of the Trent.

A hundred years ago the river was a far less attractive environment, as Ernest Philips tells us – “The Don today is a ghastly object lesson of what industrialism will do for one of natures fairest streams. At Sheffield it receives its first flood of filth and pollution. It enters the city a sparkling moorland stream it leaves it a gurgling, bubbling mass of ink-stained pollution, spoiled by the great iron and steel works on its banks. By the time Doncaster is reached the condition of the river is much worse. It pours over the weir at the old mill bridge in a turgid flood of dirty water. It is doubtful if there is a single fish left in the river between Sheffield and the sea.”

Yet in the days gone by it was a crystal sparkling stream. Its fisheries were of great account. There would be the ordinary fresh water fish such as roach and perch, eels and chub, etc., with plenty of trout and then every autumn the salmon and the sea-trout would come up from the sea to spawn. In its form and setting the river is ideal for salmon – “here and there the river flowing with solemn hush beneath high banks, and yonder along and sparkling shallow, where the water tinkles and prattles its way over glistening beds of golden gravel.”

In dozens of old books and documents there are references to the fisheries of the Don. For centuries the Corporation had salmon ‘hecks’ (fish traps), and leased them to individuals for rent. The salmon caught was sold in the streets of this town for as little as twopence per Lb. All these fisheries have long since vanished.

There were eyewitness accounts from the 1850’s of boys standing on the river bridge and seeing salmon flashing their golden sides in the amber-coloured pools beneath the weir, and even seeing them leap the weir as they struggled to reach the shallow upland waters where nature bade them laid their eggs.

What with fishing and wild-fowling, and the daring risk of an occasional foray amongst the deer, the burgesses of Doncaster had no lack of sport. But these were not the only pastimes. Occasionally there would be the splendour of a tournament such as Scott describes in Ivanhoe, – “when knight met knight in the lists and the steel shod lance drew sparks as it smote upon breastplate and shield or visor. There would be jousting at the tilt, falconry, archery, shooting at the butts, and bouts with the quarter-staff.” At times there were grand holidays when the baron and his people held sports and invited the humbler folk as guests.

Right through the ages we can trace the growth and evolution of the people’s pastimes – the revelry in hall and cottage at Christmas, the May Day frolics on the greensward in the beautiful days of summer, the masque of the ‘mummers’ who paved the way for the later stage-play performances.

As Doncaster changed so did her sports. The innocent frolics of May Day gave way to badger, bear, and bull-bating and cock fighting the chivalry that was the root idea of the tournament when a mounted horseman scorned to take advantage of his fallen opponent, had sunk to a low ebb when the worst elements of the town population could take delight in the spectacle of a bear tearing into a poor dog, or a maddened bull being set loose with fireworks all over his body and a cat tied to his tail. Our Norman ancestors, at any rate, had a purer idea of sport than some of a later day who needed the scourgings of the Puritans to bring them back to better ways.

As we come down nearer to our own times we saw the Corporation very much concerned for the sporting rights on their extended manors. They appointed game-keepers. They gave grants for the repair of the salmon hecks on the river Don. They even had a pack of harriers and a huntsman maintained at the town’s expense, and the Corporation records show just how much money was spent on this sport – a novel form of municipal enterprise which would cause an uproar if indulged in today. Instead of harriers, however, we have races and if many of the sports we have mentioned are now quite obsolete we still find the council providing land and open spaces for cricket and football, swimming baths and leisure centres, and every form of healthy recreation. A kindly practical interest in the modern pastimes that have taken the place of the full-blooded sports of a forgotten Doncaster.


When Bowling Was a Sport Reserved for Royalty

A wooden bowling ball unearthed by digging work for London’s Crossrail project. It was discovered at the site of the Tudor King John’s Court manor house in Stepney Green. It’s now on display at a new exhibit, Tunnel: The Archaeology of Crossrail, at the Museum of London Docklands. Courtesy Crossrail/Museum of London

King Henry VIII may be most famous for ruthlessly beheading his wives, but he was also keen on rolling other spherical objects: namely, bowling balls. Henry VIII and his courtiers were known to be fans of lawn bowling, which involved tossing a “bowl” or ball across open lawns in royal gardens.

The Tudor-era bowling ball above, recently discovered in what used to be the moat of King John’s Court manor house thanks to digging work related to London’s Crossrail project, is a remnant of one of the British monarchy’s favorite pastimes.

An engraving of a bowling game, kayles, in the 16th century. Publieke domein

The English didn’t invent bowling. The first precursor of the sport is said to date to the Egyptians and Romans, who would stuff leather balls with corn, as Roy Shephard notes in An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness. In England, historians trace the sport back to the late 13th century, as open greens or “bowling greens” became more of a common feature in gardens.

Bowling was just one of many sports that were played in these courts. During the early modern period, sport was typically reserved for elites and even governed by the monarchy. Games such as tennis, wrestling, jousting, and bowling were not only for physical fitness, but opportunities for dukes and lords to socialize and exhibit power.

“If used carefully, [sport] could propel a gentleman to the heart of power,” writes James Williams in the journal Sport in History. “For the early Tudor gentlemen, sport could be a ‘deadly serious game’ with an essential social and political role.”

The grounds of the Palace of Whitehall in London in 1680. Public Domain

Special structures and venues were an expense only the wealthy could afford. Henry VIII, an avid sportsman, attached a number of sporting venues to his palaces. Hampton Court, Nonsuch Palace, and Whitehall boasted tiltyards, cockpits, and bowling alleys. The complex at Whitehall was particularly elaborate, including four indoor tennis courts, a jousting yard, a cock-fighting and bear-baiting pit, and a bowling green.

There were many different types of lawn games that involved rolling a bowl and hitting a pin or cone, such as bocce and nine-pins. One of the earliest forms of bowling was a game called “cones,” in which two small cone-shaped objects were placed on two opposite ends, and players would try to roll their bowl as close as possible to the opponent’s cone. The game “kayles”—later called nine-pins—usually involved throwing a stick at a series of nine pins set up in a square formation, though sometimes players would roll a bowl instead. Similar to the ten-pin bowling commonly played today, bowlers would aim to knock down all the pins with the least number of throws. Sometimes, the game would feature a larger “king pin” in the center of the square. If that was knocked down, the player would automatically win the game.  

Historic bowls of various shapes and sizes. Courtesy Crossrail

Choosing the proper shape and type of bowl was important depending on the turf, as Joseph Strutt notes in The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. Flat bowls were best for alleys, round biased bowls (a ball with a weight on one side) gave an advantage on open grounds, and round bowls were selected for greens that were plain and level.

The sport was widely popular. Local taverns arranged bowling matches in halls or the village green. Gambling was also common. One account in 1648 reported that Sir Edgar Hungerford had lost his entire estate while betting on a bowling match.

An illustration of lawn bowling by Johann Franz Hörmannsperger from 1736. Public Domain

More than one British monarch tried to ban commoners and peasants from participating in bowling, along with other sports, arguing that they were a waste of time and encouraged gambling. In 1477, King Edward IV decreed that for commoners, playing sports was a finable offense:

“whosoever shall occupy a place of closh, kayles, half-bowle, hand-in, hand-out or queck board shall be three years imprisoned and forfeit 㿀, and he that will use any of the said games shall be two years imprisoned and forfeit 㾶.”

Similarly, in 1511, King Henry VIII tried to make the sport even more exclusive. He declared that bowling was illegal for common people, and that “no manner of Persons could at any time play at any Bowl or Bowls in Open Places out of his Garden or Orchard.” Those who broke the law would receive a statutory fine of six shillings and eight pence. Though according to Shephard, noblemen who owned property valued at more than 𧴜 could obtain a “bowling license” to play. It would take centuries for these laws to be amended.


Filling the Time

As we know, there is nothing as dangerous as a bored nobleman (unless it's an idle soldier). These are some of the ways&mdashbesides hunting&mdashthat a courtier might fill his or her time.

Gossip , of course. But, like flirting, you can do that anywhere, especially while doing almost any of the following.

Tennis is popular. It's played indoors or in a high-walled outdoor court. (The grass court comes into use in 1591.)

The ball is made of leather and stuffed with hair.

In one version, there are no rackets you hit the ball with the palm of your hand over a tasseled rope stretched across the center of the court.

Other sports include bowls (lawn bowling) for which Henry VIII set up an alley at White Hall. Bowling alleys exist about London for ordinary people, too.

Also shuttlecock (like badminton), archery, billiards, hunting and riding, wrestling, and political maneuvering.

Pall Mall has probably not yet come to England, but is popular in France and Scotland. It is not exactly croquet, so you can do what you like with the mallet and balls in the prop box.

Attend the theatre . Remember, this is in the afternoons, since there is no artificial lighting.

Young gentlemen of appearance can, for an extra fee, have their chairs put right up on the stage.

There is a different play every day perhaps 4-6 plays in a repertory season.

There are no playhouses until 1576 the performance is very likely in an inn yard.

Ladies may attend, but are usually veiled or in masks.

Have the players in. Have them bring the play to your house. Count the silverware before they leave. Make sure you know who their patron is. Try to avoid Richard II (with its deposition scene) and other controversial works, just in case. Do not sell tickets.


Tudor Sports and Pastimes - History

Van Folk-lore of Shakespeare by T. F. Thiselton Dyer: New York, Harper.

Very many of the old sports and pastimes in popular use in Shakespeare's day have long ago not only been laid aside, but, in the course of years, have become entirely forgotten. This is to be regretted, as a great number of these capital diversions were admirably suited both for in and out of doors, the simplicity which marked them being one of their distinguishing charms. That Shakespeare, too, took an interest in these good old sources of recreation, may be gathered from the frequent reference which he has, made to them his mention of some childish game even serving occasionally as an illustration in a passage characterized by its force and vigor.

Archery. In Shakespeare's day this was a very popular diversion, and the "Knights of Prince Arthur's Round Table" was a society of archers instituted by Henry VIII, and encouraged in the reign of Elizabeth 1 . Fitzstephen, who wrote in the reign of Henry II, notices it among the summer pastimes of the London youth and the repeated statutes, from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, enforcing the use of the bow, generally ordered the leisure time upon holidays to be passed in its exercise. 2 Shakespeare seems to have been intimately acquainted with the numerous terms connected with archery, many of which we find scattered throughout his plays. Thus, in "Love's Labour's Lost " (iv. i), Maria uses the expression, "Wide o' the bow hand," a term which signified a good deal to the left of the mark.

The "clout" was the nail or pin of the target, and "from the passages," says Dyce, 3 "which I happen to recollect in our early writers, I should say that the clout, or pin, stood in the centre of the inner circle ofthe butts, which circle, being painted white, was called the white that, to 'hit the white' was a considerable feat, but that to 'hit or cleave the clout or pin' was a much greater one, though, no doubt, the expressions were occasionally used to signify the same thing, viz., to hit the mark." In "Love's Labour's Lost" (iv. i), Costard says of Boyet:

In "Romeo and Juliet" (ii. 4), where Mercutio relates how Romeo is "shot thorough the ear with a love-song the very pin of his heart cleft with the blind bow-boy's butt-shaft," the metaphor, of course, is from archery.

The term "loose" was the technical one for the discharging of an arrow, and occurs in "Love's Labour's Lost" (v. 2). According to Capell 4 , "the words of Bottom, in "A Midsummer-Night's Dream" (i. 2), "hold, or cut bow-strings," were a proverbial phrase, and alluded to archery. "When a party was made at butts, assurance of meeting was given in the words of that phrase, the sense of the person using them being that he would 'hold' or keep promise, or they might 'cut his bow-strings,' demolish him for an archer." Whether, adds Dyce, "this be the true explanation of the phrase, I am unable to determine."

All hid, all hid. Biron, in "Love's Labour's Lost" (iv. 3), no doubt means the game well-known as hide-and-seek, "All hid, all hid an old infant play." The following note, however, in Cotgrave's "French and English Dictionary," has been adduced to show that he may possibly mean blindman's-buff: "Clignemasset. The childish play called Hodman-blind [i.e., blind-man's-buff], Harrie-racket, or Are you all hid."

Backgammon. The old name for this game was "Tables," as in "Love's Labour's Lost" (v. 2):

Barley-break. This game, called also the "Last Couple in Hell," which is alluded to in the "Two Noble Kinsmen," (iv. 3), was played by six people, three of each sex, who were coupled by lot. 5 A piece of ground was then chosen, and divided into three compartments, of which the middle one was called hell. It was the object of the couple condemned to this division to catch the others, who advanced from the two extremities in which case a change of situation took place, and hell was filled by the couple who were excluded by preoccupation from the other places. This catching, however, was not so easy, as, by the rules of the game, the middle couple were not to separate before they had succeeded, while the others might break hands whenever they found themselves hard pressed. When all had been taken in turn, the last couple were said "to be in hell," and the game ended.

The game was frequently mentioned by old writers, and appears to have been very popular. From Herrick's Poems, it is seen that the couples in their confinement occasionally solaced themselves by kisses:

The phrase to "bid the base," means to run fast, challenging another to pursue. It occurs again in "Venus and Adonis:"

Billiards. Shakespeare is guilty of an anachronism in "Antony and Cleopatra" (ii. 5), where he makes Cleopatra say: "Let's to billiards" &mdash the game being unknown to the ancients. The modern manner of playing at billiards differs from that formerly in use. At the commencement of the last century the billiard-table was square, having only three pockets for the balls to run in, situated on one of the sides &mdash that is, at each corner, and the third between them. About the middle of the table a small arch of iron was placed, and at a little distance from it an upright cone called a king. At certain periods of the game it was necessary for the balls to be driven through the one and round the other, without knocking either of them down, which was not easily effected, because they were not fastened to the table.

Bone-ace. This old game, popularly called "One-and-Thirty," is alluded to by Grumio in "Taming of the Shrew" (i. 2): "Well, was it fit for a servant to use his master so being, perhaps, for aught I see, two-and-thirty &mdash a pip out." 10 It was very like the French game of "Vingt-un," only a longer reckoning. Strutt 11 says that "perhaps Bone-ace is the same as the game called Ace of Hearts, prohibited with all lotteries by cards and dice. An. 12 Geor. II., Cap. 38, sect. 2." It is mentioned in Massinger's "Fatal Dowry" (ii. 2): "You think, because you served my lady's mother, [you] are thirty-two years old, which is a pip out, you know." The phrase "to be two-and-thirty," a pip out, was an old cant term applied to a person who was intoxicated.

Bo-peep. This nursery amusement, which consisted in peeping from behind something, and crying "Bo!" is referred to by the Fool in "King Lear" (i. 4): " That such a king should play bo-peep." In Sherwood's Dictionary it is defined, "Jeu d'enfant ou (plustost) des nourrices aux petits enfans se cachans le visage et puis se monstrant." Minsheu's derivation of bo-peep, from the noise which chickens make when they come out of the shell, is, says Douce,' more whimsical than just.

Bowls. Frequent allusions occur to this game, which seems to have been a popular pastime in olden times. The small ball, now called the jack, at which the players aim, was sometimes termed the "mistress." In "Troilus and Cressida " (iii. 2), Pandarus says: "So, so rub 12 on, and kiss the mistress." A bowl that kisses the jack, or mistress, is in the most advantageous position hence "to kiss the jack" served to denote a state of great advantage. Thus, in "Cymbeline" (ii. i), Cloten exclaims, "Was there ever man had such luck! when I kissed the jack, upon an up-cast to be hit away! I had a hundred pound on't." There is another allusion to this game, according to Staunton, in "King John" (ii. i): "on the outward eye of fickle France " &mdash the aperture on one side which contains the bias or weight that inclines the bowl in running from a direct course, being sometimes called the eye.


A further reference to this game occurs in the following dialogue in " Richard II" (iii. 4):

Cards. Some of the old terms connected with card-playing are curious, a few of which are alluded to by Shakespeare. Thus, in "King Lear" (v. i), Edmund says: "And hardly shall I carry out my side," alluding to the card table, where to carry out a side meant to carry out the game with your partner successfully. So, "to set up a side" was to become partners in the game "to pull or pluck down a side" was to lose it." A lurch at cards denoted an easy victory. So, in "Coriolanus" (ii. 2), Cominius says: "he lurch'd all swords of the garland," meaning, as Malone says, that Coriolanus gained from all other warriors the wreath of victory, with ease, and incontestable superiority.

A pack of cards was formerly termed "a deck of cards," as in "3 Henry VI" (v. i) :

Chess. As might be expected, several allusions occur in Shakespeare's plays to this popular game. In "The Tempest" (v. i), Ferdinand and Miranda are represented playing at it and in "King John" (ii. i), Elinor says:

Dice. Among the notices of this game, may be quoted that in "Henry V" (iv. prologue):

Dun is in the mire. This is a Christmas sport, which Gifford describes as follows: "A log of wood is brought into the midst of the room this is Dun (the cart-horse), and a cry is raised that he is stuck in the mire. Two of the company advance, either with or without ropes, to draw him out. After repeated attempts, they find themselves unable to do it, and call for more assistance. The game continues till all the company take part in it, when Dun is extricated. Much merriment is occasioned from the awkward efforts of the rustics to lift the log, and from sundry arch contrivances to let the ends of it fall on one another's toes." Thus, in "Romeo and Juliet" (1.4), Mercutio says:

In the "Merry Wives of Windsor" (i. i), Slender says: "I bruised my shin th' other day with playing at sword and dagger with a master of fence," i. e., with one who had taken his master's degree in the science.

Among the numerous allusions to fencing quoted by Shakespeare may be mentioned the following: "Venue or veney " was a fencing term, meaning an attack or hit. It is used in the "Merry Wives of Windsor" (i. i), by Slender, who relates how he bruised his shin "with playing at sword and dagger with a master of fence three veneys for a dish of stewed prunes." It is used metaphorically in "Love's Labour's Lost" (v. i), for a brisk attack, by Armado: "A sweet touch, a quick venue of wit! snip, snap, quick and home!" The Italian term "Stoccado" or "Stoccata," abbreviated also into "Stock," seems to have had a similar signification. In "Romeo and Juliet" (iii. i), Mercutio, drawing his sword, says:

Shakespeare has also alluded to other fencing terms, such as the "foin," a thrust, which is used by the Host in the "Merry Wives of Windsor" (iii. 2), and in "Much Ado About Nothing" (v. i), where Antonio says, in his heated conversation with Leonato:

Flap-dragon 18 This pastime was much in use in days gone by. A small combustible body was set on fire, and put afloat in a glass of liquor. The courage of the toper was tried in the attempt to toss off the glass in such a manner as to prevent the flap-dragon doing mischief &mdash raisins in hot brandy being the usual flap-dragons. Shakespeare several times mentions this custom, as in "Love's Labour's Lost" (v. i) where Costard says: "Thou art easier swallowed than a flap-dragon." And in "2 Henry IV" (ii. 4), he makes Falstaff say: "and drinks off candles' ends for flap-dragons." 18

It appears that formerly gallants used to vie with each other in drinking off flap-dragons to the health of their mistresses &mdash which were sometimes even candles' ends, swimming in brandy or other strong spirits, whence, when on fire, they were snatched by the mouth and swallowed "an allusion to which occurs in the passage above. As candles' ends made the most formidable flap-dragon, the greatest merit was ascribed to the heroism of swallowing them. Ben Jonson, in "The Masque of the Moon " (1838, p. 616, ed. Gifford), says: "But none that will hang themselves for love, or eat candles' ends, etc., as the sublunary lovers do."

Football. An allusion to this once highly popular game occurs in "Comedy of Errors" (ii. i). Dromio of Ephesus asks:

According to Strutt 19 , it does not appear among the popular exercises before the reign of Edward III and then, in 1349, it was prohibited by a piablic edict because it impeded the progress of archery. The danger, however, attending this pastime occasioned James I to say: "From this Court I debarre all rough and violent exercises, as the football, meeter for laming than making able the users thereof."

Occasionally the rustic boys made use of a blown bladder, without the covering of leather, by way of a football, putting beans and horse-beans inside, which made a rattling noise as it was kicked about. Barclay, in his "Ship of Fools" (1508) thus graphically describes it:

Gleek. According to Drake," this game is alluded to twice by Shakespeare &mdash in "A Midsummer-Night's Dream " (iii. i):

"Nay, I can gleek upon occasion."

And in "Romeo and Juliet" (iv. 5):

"I Musician. What will you give us ?
Petrus. No money, on my faith, but the gleek."

Handy-dandy. A very old game among children. A child hides something in his hand, and makes his playfellow guess in which hand it is. If the latter guess rightly, he wins the article, if wrongly, he loses an equivalent. "Sometimes," says Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps, "the game is played by a sort of sleight-of-hand, changing the article rapidly from one hand into the other, so that the looker-on is often deceived, and induced to name the hand into which it is apparently thrown." This is what Shakespeare alludes to by "change places" in "King Lear" (iv. 6): "see how yond justice rails upon yond simple thief. Hark, in thine ear: change places and, handy-dandy, which is the justice, which is the thief?" 21

Hide-fox and all after. A children's game, considered by many to be identical with hide-and-seek. It is mentioned by Hamlet (iv. 2). Some commentators think that the term "kid-fox," in "Much Ado About Nothing" (ii. 3), may have been a technical term in the game of "hide-fox." Some editions have printed it "hid-fox." Claudio says:

Horse-racing. That this diversion was in Shakespeare's day occasionally practised in the spirit of the modern turf is evident from "Cymbeline" (iii. 2):

Leap-frog. One boy stoops down with his hands upon his knees, and others leap over him, every one of them running forward and stooping in his turn. It is mentioned by Shakespeare in "Henry V" (v. 2), where he makes the king say, "If I could win a lady at leap-frog, or by vaulting into my saddle with my armour on my back, . I should quickly leap into a wife." Ben Jonson, in his comedy of "Bartholomew Fair," speaks of "a leappe frogge chance note."

Laugh-and-lie-down (more properly laugh-and-lay-down ) was a game at cards, to which there is an allusion in the "Two Noble Kinsmen" (ii. 1):

Footnote 1: See Drake's "Shakespeare and His Times," vol. ii. pp. 178-181.

Footnote 2: Brand's "Pop. Antiq.," 1870, vol. ii. bl. 290.

Footnote 4: "Glossary," p. 210.

Footnote 5: From Gilford's Note on Massinger's Works, 181 3, vol. i. bl. 104.

Footnote 6: See Jamieson's "Scottish Dictionary," 1879, vol. i. bl. 122.

Footnote 7: Glossary," vol. i. p. 57. ' Ibid. vol. i. p. 58.

Footnote 8: "Sports and Pastimes," 1876, p. 143.

Footnote 9: See Harting's "Ornithology of Shakespeare," p. 156 Strutt's "Sports and Pastimes," 1876, p. 98. A simple mode of bat-fowling,' by means of a large clap-net and a lantern, and called bird-batting, is alluded to in Fielding's " Joseph Andrews" (bk. ii. chap. x.). Drake thinks that it is to a stratagem of this kind Shakespeare alludes when he paints Buckingham exclaiming (" Henry VIII" i. i):

Footnote 11: "Sports and Pastimes," 1876, p. 436.

Footnote 12: Rub is still a term at the game, expressive of the movement of the balls. Vgl. "King Lear" (ii. 2), and "Love's Labour's Lost" (iv. i), where Boyet, speaking of the game, says: "I fear too much rubbing."

Footnote 13: Halliwell-Phillipps "Handbook Index to Shakespeare," p. 43.

Footnote 14: She means, "Do you intend to make a mockery of me among these companions."

Footnote 15: "Illustrations of Shakspeare," p. 20.

Footnote 16: Gifford's note on Jonson's Works, vol. ii. bl. 3.

Footnote 17: A three-man beetle is a heavy implement, with three handles, used in driving piles, etc., which required three men to lift it.

Footnote 18: A correspondent of "Notes and Queries," 2d series, vol. vii. bl. 277, suggests as a derivation the German schnapps, spirit, and drache, dragon, and that it is equivalent to spirit-fire.

Footnote 19: "Sports and Pastimes," pp. 168, 169.

Footnote 20: See "British Popular Customs," 1876, pp. 78, 83, 87, 401.

Footnote 21: See Brand's "Pop. Antiq.," 1849, vol. ii. bl. 420.

Footnote 22: See Strutt's "Sports and Pastimes," pp. 499, 500 Brand's "Pop. Antiq.," 1849, vol. ii. pp. 397, 398.

Footnote 23: "Anatomy of Melancholy" Drake's "Shakespeare and His Times," vol. ii. bl. 298.

Footnote 24: Clark and Wright's "Notes to Hamlet," 1876, pp. 212, 213.

Footnote 25: See Strutt's "Sports and Pastimes," p. 365 Nares's "Glossary," vol. ii. bl. 522.

Dyer, T. F. Thiselton. Folk-lore of Shakespeare. New York: Harper, 1884. Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug. 2000. (date when you accessed the information) .


Hunting, Hawking and the Early Tudor Gentleman

James Williams considers hunting as the ideal pastime for the nobility in the sixteenth century.

‘By God’s Body I would rather that my son should hang than study literature. It behoves the sons of gentlemen to blow horn calls correctly, to hunt skilfully, to train a hawk well and carry it elegantly. But the study of literature should be left to clodhoppers.’

When, in 1517, a now anonymous gentleman expressed this view to Richard Pace, the great humanist may have been exasperated, but certainly not surprised. It was a familiar sentiment in early Tudor England: despite the protests of a few humanists such as Desiderius Erasmus and Sir Thomas More, hunting was deemed by most to be not only a symbol of knighthood, but an activity that marked out the true gentleman. But what was it about hunting and hawking that made them appropriate pastimes for the early Tudor gentleman, and why did they retain this position?

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